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NOTE: All references to page numbers in the following footnotes refer to pages in the paperback edition of The Spirit of the Internet.



1. The concept of the evolution of human consciousness is discussed in detail in the chapter titled "Conscious Evolution and the Evolution of Consciousness."

2. Ralph Abraham is a writer, lecturer, and Professor of Mathematics at the University of California at Santa Cruz. He has been active on the research frontier of dynamics in mathematics since 1960, and in applications and experiments since 1973. He has been a consultant on chaos theory and its applications in numerous fields (medical physiology, ecology, mathematical economics, psychotherapy, etc.) and is an active editor for the technical journals World Futures and the International Journal of Bifurcations and Chaos.

3. Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) was a Jesuit priest, paleontologist, and philosopher.

Chapter 1 — A Place Called Cyberspace

1. Vinton Cerf is sometimes called "the father of the Internet" because of his pioneering work with ARPANET, the forerunner of today's Internet and for his contributions to the development of TCP/IP, the Internet's basic communications protocol.

2. In essence, the World Wide Web is "superimposed" on the Internet. The "Addendum" to this book describes this concept more fully.

3. Source, Inktomi Corporation,

4. See page 178 for the rest of Gibson's definition.

5. Found at

6. Found at

7. Found at

8. Bruce Sterling's The Hacker Crackdown (Bantam Books, 1993).

9. Mark Pesce is a leader in the development of Virtual Reality computing.

10. An argument can be made that the original "low tech" way people entered cyberspace was by reading books. It is not uncommon to hear someone say their mind was "lost" in a good book. What the high tech of the Internet adds is the opportunity to interact with other minds while "in" cyberspace and reading/discussing, online, the same book.

11. See Howard Rheingold's The Virtual Community (Addison Wesley, 1993) for an excellent overview of this topic.

12. Found at

13. From a paper found at

14. Information about the Contact Consortium may be found at

15. See the chapter titled "The Internet as a Chaotic Attractor" for a discussion of the "reality" of nuclear physics.

16. Mark Pesce's "Ontos and Techne: Incorporations and the Noosphere," found at

17. Galen Brandt is a writer, speaker, musician, performer, and a leader in the field of Virtual Healing.

18. See

19. Publishing information regarding Virtual Healing will be posted on the Matrix Masters web site when it becomes available; examples here are from personal correspondence with the author.

20. From Galen Brandt's Virtual Reality as Healing Art (a panel discussion, SIGGRAPH 98).

21. Stuart Kauffman is a leading thinker on self-organization and the science of complexity as applied to biology. He was Professor of Bio-chemistry and Biophysics at the School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and External Professor at the Santa Fe Institute. Professor Kauffman was awarded a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellowship in 1987.

22. Stuart Kauffman's At Home in the Universe, pp. 20-21 (Oxford University Press, 1995).

23. The Digital Biology Project is dedicated to creating biologically inspired cyberspace. Their web site,, provides a wealth of information about this topic.

24. The Tierra web site may be found at

25. See "The Art of Steven Rooke" on page for a brief description of how a computer can use genetic algorithms to simulate life.

26. Found at

27. During the Cambrian period, about 550 million years ago, almost all of the major phyla found in the Earth's biosphere first came into being. Only the vertebrates arose somewhat later.

28. An interview with Bruce Damer by Russ Spencer, found at

29. For more information about artificial life, see the web site of The Digital Biology Project at

30. William Gibson's Neuromancer (Ace Books, 1984).

Chapter 2 — The Internet and the Noosphere

1. John Hogue is an author and self-described "rogue scholar."

2. Albert Hofmann's first syntheses of LSD also took place in 1938, although his famous bicycle ride did not take place until 1943. Interestingly, it wasn't until the 1960s that both Chardin's book and Hofmann's discovery entered mainstream consciousness.

3. Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945), a Russian scientist, was instrumental in establishing the field of biogeochemistry.

4. Julian Huxley's "Introduction" to Teilhard de Chardin's The Phenomenon of Man, p. 17 (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).

5. As our understanding and use of genetic-altering technology improves, perhaps our species' biological changes will take place at a much faster rate as well. Of course, technology such as this is going to require even greater and more rapid advances in consciousness if we are to remain in control of our creations.

6. Teilhard de Chardin's The Phenomenon of Man, p. 251 (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).

7. Chardin, Phenomenon, p. 20.

8. Teilhard de Chardin's "The Formation of the Noosphere," Revue des Questions Scientifiques (Louvain), pp. 7-35, January 1947, found in Teilhard de Chardin's The Future of Man, pp. 165-166 (New York: Harper & Row, 1964).

9. See page 140 for a description of these new devices.

10. Chardin, "The Formation," p. 166.

11. Chardin, "The Formation," p. 167.

12. Chardin, "The Formation," p. 167.

13. Definition of "Gaia," The Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary, p. 566 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

14. Interview for bOING bOING #10, found at htm.

15. Richard Yensen, Ph.D., studied psychedelic psychotherapy with Stanislav Grof, M.D. at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. During his time there he treated patients with substance abuse disorders, cancer, and neurosis. He also trained other health professionals. Currently, Dr. Yensen is the Director of the Orenda Institute.

16. Weston La Barre's "Hallucinogens and the Shamanic Origins of Religion," in Furst, P.T. (Ed.), Flesh of the Gods-the Ritual Use of Hallucinogens, pp. 261-278 (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972), quoted in Richard Yensen's "Prologue," to Janine Rodiles' A Prohibited Therapy - Biography of Salvadore Roquet, 1998.

17. Richard Yensen's "Prologue," to Janine Rodiles' A Prohibited Therapy - Biography of Salvadore Roquet, 1998.

18. For a listing of current professional studies in this field, see the web site of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), at

19. At the time of this writing, the U.S. Congress is considering legislation that will severely restrict Internet access to information about entheogens. Those with an interest in such subjects may want to download this information to their personal computers while it is still accessible.

20. Jonathan Ott's The Age of Entheogens & The Angels' Dictionary, p. 37 (Natural Products Company, 1995).

21. Humphry Osmond's "A Review of the Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 66(3): 418-434, 1957.

22. John Perry Barlow is a retired cattle rancher, a lyricist for the Grateful Dead, and co-founder and executive chair of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

23. John Perry Barlow's Being in Nothingness: Virtual Reality and the Pioneers of Cyberspace, found at John_Perry_Barlow.

24. Erik Davis' Techgnosis, p. 170 (Three Rivers Press, 1998).

25. From a transcript of an interview of Bruce Damer by Erik Davis, found at

26. Erik Davis' Techgnosis, p. 162 (Three Rivers Press, 1998).

27. Terence McKenna's "Psychedelic Society," from Robert Forte's (ed.) Entheogens and the Future of Religion, p.60 (San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices, 1997).

28. Evidence that our species is capable of living in harmony with both the environment and each other may be seen at the annual Burning Man event. Each year, thousands of people assemble in a Nevada desert location and erect a temporary city, dedicated to radical self-expression and radical self-reliance. They bring their own shelter as well as all the food and water they will need for the entire event. When they leave, the vast majority leave no trace that they were there-taking their refuse with them and dismantling their shelters. The Internet has been instrumental in the growth of this event from 1,000 participants in 1993 to over 20,000 in 1999. For more information on Burning Man, see

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